Definitions 101: Defining Terms to Precipitate Political Truth
“There can be no liberty for a community which lacks the means
by which to detect lies.”
Walter Lippmann, author of Public Opinion
Ever since Man became a political creature, there have been two opposing views of the relationship between a community and its members:
- a) One that puts the state above the individual and
- b) One that puts the individual above the state.
Community: A body comprised of smaller units, individuals, citizens or cells united around a common creed, interest, locale, identity or purpose.
Polis: literally means “city” in Greek. Polis can also mean citizenship or a body of citizens. A polis was the typical structure of a community in the ancient Greek world i.e. City/states. A polis consisted of an urban centre, often fortified and with a sacred centre built on a natural acropolis or harbor, which controlled the surrounding territory of land.
Broadly a polis is a state or society especially when characterized by a sense of community.
Republicanism, Monarchism, Collectivism, Socialism, Fascism, Nazism, Communism, Anarchy, Tyranny and Liberty under God, exist because the mindset of the people is such that they want it.
Monarchy: Rule of one man (monarch, despot, autocrat) through appointed officials
Rights of ruler stressed over those of the ruled.
Monarchies exhibit the tendency to centralization of power and atrophy of regional and local authorities.
Ancient models: Sparta, Persia, and Roman Empire
Absolute Monarchy: Ruler’s will is supreme. “Law” is equivalent to the ‘ruler’s decree.’
It creates no polis. It expresses no relationship between a group and its members, only the power of one individual over all others. In a state identified with a single exalted individual, the conceptual connection between the community and the other individuals is dissevered and no more speculation is possible about their relative importance i.e. Louis XIV
Oligarchic System: “Rule by the few.” Membership in the ruling class can be acquired by birth, office, wealth, education, economic, business or financial control etc.
Double Political System:
For most communities there existed/exists a double political system. The relation between the state and the “upper class” being built on individualistic lines –the state as a device to protect elite interests– Protectionism of the privileged few.
For the lower class the system was/is Collectivist. The state does not see itself in a subordinate role, but rather as Master. The state grants the lower class protection of the law, but only in exchange for a claim on their services, resources and on unconditional submission to regulation of their lives. i.e. Plato’s Republic, and many current “constitutional republics.”
Collectivism: Supremacy of the State over the individual.
The community is no longer merely the sum of the total of the individuals. By addition of an imponderable element, The Collective gains life and an aim of itself. Aka “the cloak of tyranny.” The weapon of those who wish to kill the mind, thought and conscience, thus The Collective begets the “New Idol”, “the coldest of all monsters”, the State.
Its purpose is no longer to benefit its members; on the contrary, the Collective assumes that the sole natural function of each individual member is to serve the interest of the Collective Community.
The final goal is not the well being of the individual, but the well being of the Unified Collective, the State. Fascism, Communism, Socialism, Nazism etc. The Collective easily gained control where state religions were also hierarchical in structure, such as Italy and Germany where both Mussolini and Hitler received worship.
Socialism: Socialism is a Collectivist social system based on public “community” control of the means of production and distribution by a planning central authority.
Control is accomplished via legislation, regulation, decree, protectionism, favors, force, behavioral conditioning, status etc.
In this regard it is equal to communism.
But it differs from communism in so far as there is no equality of the portions allotted to each individual for his own consumption.
Marx, Lenin, Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin, Mao etc. were all “socialists”. The distinctions in application arose as to the methods of executing Socialist control. Those that envisioned a rapid transformation applied acute violence, coercion, elimination and oppression;
whilst the Fabian Socialists applied, and continue to apply, steady infiltration into existing institutions of education, government, and media. i.e. United Kingdom and United States of America.
Communism: In simple terms, liberty is exchanged for “equality.”
The dialectic of materialism. Collectivism and Equality.
To accomplish this “equality”, the State appears in pronounced authoritarian role to take control of the means of education, production and distribution for the supposed welfare of the society on the road to some ill defined, yet advertised as “inevitable,” Utopia.
Karl Marx, like many Jews, hungered for political equality and social acceptance. Thus, his stated goals were to “dethrone God and destroy capitalism.” And level the field flat to a standardized mediocrity.
Precisely who is to coordinate the ‘will of the community’ or the ‘will of the people’; who is to distribute the goods; and on whose principles ‘equality’ is to be defined– has long plagued this ideology.
Alas, digital media, electronic learning, the use of computer adaptive software, embedded formative assessments, computer ‘gaming’, using artificial intelligence with embedded “logic” have now fulfilled the Dewey, Pavlov, Skinner, Vygotsky and Turchenko dreams of “teaching machines” to behaviorally condition the “community” members to their servitude to the Comintern, the Communist International, State. The goals of socialist, communist, and fascist regimes aim toward globalization.
Duty to Work: The communist rights include the ‘right to work’, which means the duty to work. To fulfill the needs of the collective, each member must fulfill their labor role. This duty to work is closely related to the “Right to Existence”. The right to existence must be justified by claiming one’s allotment of work. One’s mind, body and soul belong to the entire Collective and it is only the lack of 100 percent participation that has supposedly forestalled Utopia’s arrival.
Balkan joke: “What is the difference between Communism and Capitalism?”
Answer: “Communism is the exploitation of man by man.
In Capitalism it is the reverse.”
Fascism/ Prussianism: Liberty is exchanged for “prosperity.”
Collectivism and Capitalism.
Fascism removes the need for individuals to think. Confers simple tasks to “do” as commanded, with no responsibilities and restless busyness. Controls the intellectual diet, eliminates any reasoning and produces a religious worship of the fascist state.
Per Benito Mussolini:
“Fascism is a religious conception of life, in which Man is seen in his inherent relation to a higher law, to an objective will that transcends the individual and raises him to the consciousness of a spiritual community…
“According to its anti-individualist attitude the idea of Fascism is for the state, and for the individual insofar as he coincides with the state…since the state has changed in the consciousness and will of the people…Fascism affirms the state as the true reality of the individual. It is the only freedom which can seriously be considered—the freedom of the state, and of the individual within the state—because, for the Fascist, everything is in the state, and outside of the state nothing legal or spiritual can exist, or still less be of value. In this sense Fascism is totalitarianism, and the Fascist state is unity and synthesis of all values and gives the whole life of the people its meaning, development and forcefulness.”
This might as well be a catechism for communism except for who gets to determine the “objective will” of the Fascist state.
The Fascist/Prussians still want to hang on to the Capitalist incentive component; so representative government is replaced with: the Prussian Road to Capitalism: State control of Infrastructure, Education and Crony Protectionism. “Prosperity” is defined by material economic production, organization, and efficiency, regimented obedience to said goals of the state.
- Hierarchy- Appointment from the Top.
The supreme head of the state appoints a few big officials, each of whom appoints a great many smaller ones, and so down to the mayor, judge and county clerk…and every official is responsible not to the people whose affairs he administers but to the official who appointed him. “Just following orders, doing what I’m told.”
- Authority- government by Command from superior. The method of government decisions is by decree from superiors; subordinates have no vote, only unquestioning obedience.
- Fascist ‘Discipline’- Voluntary Obedience
Fascist discipline involves a surrender of individual consciousness and devotion, without reserve, of every activity of body and mind to the collective will. This social- emotional conditioning means the complete voluntary adjustment of an individual to a group, the change from and independent human mind to an intellect capable of working in a group, through a group, and towards a goal not chosen individually but always common to the whole group community.
It comes perilously close to the concept of a Robot programmed for the collective will. For the Fascist the function of making up his mind has simply been formatted as reflexive via social engineering. Today this is being accomplished via adaptive computer software with ongoing embedded formative assessments. (see below for more on Digital media and E-learning, Behavioral and Cognitive Science)
Republican government: is that government in which the body, or only a part of the people, is possessed of the supreme power.
When the body of the people is possessed with the supreme power it is called a democracy;
When power is lodged only in the hands of a part of the people it is called an aristocracy.
Examples: Ancient Roman Republic; Peoples Republic of China, Federal Republic of Germany, United Soviet Socialist Republic, United States of America
Democracy: Rule by the body of people who have been granted suffrage to participate in or elect representatives to act on their behalf in the assemblies and institutions of government.
Rule by code of law (in constitutional government), which limits the powers of all, including the ruler.
Rights and freedoms of citizens stressed over those of rulers or the state.
Democracy has nothing to do with any economic point of view. It can logically exist in connection with socialism as with capitalism.
It is a system of representative self-government of a people, and its one and only axiom is that the community exists only to serve the interests of its members. Thus, as a political tool it is subject to the current perceived “interests” of the members. Compare the interests and outcomes of Revolutionary America and Revolutionary France. A Democracy can be as despotic in its oppression of the individual as can the Collective or the Czar.
This is precisely why the United States of America was founded as a democratic Constitutional Republic, to protect the God given rights of the individual.
Constitutionalism: Recognizing that human nature is fallen and that government is needed among men; recognizing that power tends to concentrate and corrupt those in power– a framework or restraint defining organization, purpose, duties and limits of government is required.
The United States Constitution is singular in the history of mankind. Aptly described by Abraham Lincoln as the “frame of silver” surrounding the Declaration of Independence, the “apple of gold.” Proverbs 25:11
“It is hardly too strong to say that the Constitution was made to guard the people against the dangers of good intentions….There are men, in all ages…who mean to govern well: but they mean to govern. They promise to be kind masters; but they mean to be masters…They think there need be but little restraint upon themselves….The love of power may sink too deep in their own hearts…” Daniel Webster
“Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly in adequate to the government of any other.” John Adams
One must ask, “What then has changed, the Constitution, or the people?” And if the people are no longer moral or religious could an immoral and unfaithful mass be entrusted to fashion any better Constitution exists?
Purpose of Education in America:
To prepare a moral and religious people for self-government.
The founders’ vision was never for labor force development.
Theocracy: God as King, Lawgiver, Judge and Redeemer. As much as the Isms wish to deny the reality of humanity and human nature, each individual is created for a relationship with their Creator. Why God should wish to do this is beyond our human comprehension, but it is the purpose for which we were created. From Genesis to Revelation, the Purpose is clear. God is to dwell, shacan, mishkan, tabernacle with man.
God’s Theocracy recognizes the sanctity of each individual life and each individual’s responsibility to God and his fellow human beings.
God’s Law came before the Jewish monarchy. The king, like any other man, was subject to God, His Law, His Priests and His Prophets.
Liberty: Individual liberty, physical, emotional, cognitive and spiritual liberty requires the ability to discriminate between a set of moral absolutes of right and wrong, good and evil in thought, motive and behavior.
Liberty is not a state of domicile as in a fiefdom or freedom, but implies a choice of behavior, participation, action and the responsibility of each individual for the consequences of each decision. (Ezekiel 18)
There can be no “liberty” in a collectivist state.
Culture: Culture is the means by which we transmit knowledge, values and beliefs from one generation to the next.
Cybernetics: Machines governing men. Machines performing what human beings used to perform.
Behavioral Science/ Cognitive Science: The behavior modifies the neural system no less than the neural system directs the behavior. What one does modifies the brain and the behavior.
Logic, Adaptive Software, E-learning and Digital Media:
Behind biology is chemistry;
Behind chemistry is physics;
Behind physics is mathematics;
Behind mathematics is logic;
Behind Logic is God….
BUT with the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) with self-adapting algorithms; adaptive computer software—whoever writes the software program embeds the logic and assumes the role of “god” over those participating in the embedded formative assessments, computer gaming, digital media, educational “learning.” This was the dream of behavioral scientists such as Pavlov, B.F. Skinner; socialist philosophers like John Dewey and communist educators such as Vladimir Turchenko.
Ongoing embedded formative assessments/computer adaptive learning is now funded by American Taxpayers and used in public education across the USA. It is completely incompatible for a self-governing people, to be governed by machines. It is incomprehensible that machines would educate human beings. Which begs the question: What will these beings, be?
Charter Schools: A public school charter granted to a Charter Management Organization (CMO) by the state, which provides the CMO access to taxpayer funds in exchange for compliance with state and federal criteria. The public, taxpayer, parents, teachers and students are denied access to and authority over the Charter Management Organization board, as well as denied the oversight of educational content, personnel, purposes, testing, assessments, methods etc.
Parents seeking to escape a traditional public system, one that is no longer safe for minds, bodies or souls of children, are finding CMO’s another tragedy of government meddling in education.
(There are a few dozen admirable parent led charters…but these are the rare exceptions.)
“School Choice”: Another of those Double meaning phrases that gushes with curb appeal until…
- The term School Choice sounds like a no brainer. Who wouldn’t like a choice? Chocolate, Vanilla, Butter Pecan. The Naïve interpretation; the Marketing Propaganda, Public Opinion Pollster sound bite, sounds great to the harried masses. But just like its “choice” cousin in the abortion industry…Pro Choice, means to choose death to the baby—School Choice, implies, and invites death to the Liberty of Parental oversight in Education.
- The meaning and implications behind the Public Relations blitz of “School Choice” Propaganda.
“School Choice” means the use of taxpayer funds via vouchers, Education Savings Accounts (ESA), credits etc. to expand state and federal control over any form of educational institution or approved use that would participate in the receipt of the redistributed funds.
All taxpayer redistribution schemes whether via grants, vouchers, tax credits, tax deferment, favors, financial aid, scholarships etc. require adherence to a bureaucracy of state and Federally defined criteria, administrations, accountability, tracking, measureable outcomes, methods, content, processes, accreditation, licensing etc.
Expanding the access to monies via special legislated accounts follows the dangerous pattern of any account in which the “government” pretends the part of benevolent parent broker.
Consider the constraints, changing rules, lack of access, penalties, maintenance fees, etc. of 529 plans, HSA, FSA, IRAs, 401K plans etc. These accounts provide fertile ground for increased central planning, fraud, hacking, and opportunistic businesses to reap more taxpayer plunder, while encouraging global dependency in the cradle to grave welfare state.
Considering the effects of similar federal/state redistribution schemes in healthcare, health insurance, college-university financial aid; Medicaid, Medicare, Social Security Insurance, banking, finance and investment industries one can be certain that the results will include: hyperinflation of costs, rampant fraud and a proliferation of hungry beasts, “the eager entrepreneurs,” of services, books, media technologies, self acclaimed ‘experts’, advisors, investment funds brokers to devour the state/federal taxpayer subsidized dole.
These “Choice” accounts, credits, favors etc. will of course demand, yet another, layer of infrastructure, independent regulatory agencies, staffed with, yet more, bureaucrats and technocrats to regulate, adjudicate, define, administrate and execute the legally sanctioned plunder. Needless to say, the masses will get what they are manipulated to demand, particularly since they believe it is their own idea.
Classical “education” method:
Classical is an educational method known for training statesmen, leaders, clergy, intellectuals and self-governing laity.
The Classical method traces its popular origins to the Ancient Greek philosophers, notably Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. The method employs a master- sage(s) lecturing, facilitating discussion, debate and thoughtful rumination using the art of inquiry, rhetoric and logic. Each master had his own focus. Socrates mentored Plato and Xenophon etc.; Plato expanded to an Academy; Aristotle, who tutored Alexander the Great, founded his Lyceum.
Greek and Roman education of the elite included the mastering of the trivium: grammar, logic and rhetoric, before advancing to the quadrivium: astronomy, arithmetic, music and geometry. The content was not standardized and depended greatly on the knowledge of the particular master(s).
Rhetoric, the art of persuasion through spoken or written language was central to political life. Julius Caesar and Marcus Cicero both studied under Apollonius Molon of Rhodes, in order to advance their political careers. Rhetoric was central to persuading the masses, the military, the Senate, the slaves, the subjugated, the occupied and the allied. And still is.
Charlemagne resurrected the classical method in the late 8th and 9th centuries due to a lack of educated priests and scribes for the royal court. The 12th century again witnessed a renaissance of the classical art of debate combined with a growing demand for education, which led to the foundation of the first universities in the 12th and 13th centuries.
The rediscovery of ancient Greek and Latin texts during the later medieval period stimulated interest in classical learning and contributed to the artistic and cultural Renaissance of the 15th and 16th century.
Humanism, the key intellectual movement of the Renaissance also had its roots in classical education as the loose network of scholars attempted to reconcile the wisdom of the ancient Greeks and Romans with their Christian faith. They became known as “humanists” reflecting the degree to which they placed humankind, rather than God, at the center of their world-view.
This prepared the way for the Protestant Reformation, the Ages of Reason, Enlightenment, Rationalism, and the ongoing waves of Revolution. Thus, by the time Bastiat and Acton, had witnessed the effects of “classical education” on their nations and Europe at large, they urged extreme caution as to its content. Pointing out that it is a method, a form and like any other method or form the key factor is in precisely what is the content, and who is acting as Master mediating the meaning, shaping the logic, the principles and the purposes that will guide the rhetoric of their disciples.
Partial resource list:
Socialism, An Economic and Sociological Analysis, Ludwig von Mises
The Fascist, His State, His Mind by E.B. Ashton
Benito Mussolini on Fascism, Enciclopedia Italiana
Essays in the History of Liberty by Lord Acton
Europe, A History by Norman Davies
Margaret Thatcher, Biographies
Frederic Bastiat, Essays on Socialism, Protectionism, Tariffs, Communism
The Road to Serfdom, F. A. Hayek
The Crusade Years, Herbert Hoover
Edmund Burke, Essays on the French Revolution
Europe and the German Question, by A.W. Foerster
Democracy in America and Essays, Alexis de Tocqueville
Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith
The Bible, Talmud and Torah commentaries
Biblical and Talmudic Antecedents of Mediated Learning Experience, Shmuel Feuerstein
The Jewish World, The History and Culture of the Jewish People
Scars of War, Wound of Peace, Shlomo Ben-Ami
The Scientific and Technological Revolution and the Revolution in Education, Vladimir Turchenko
The Spirit of the Laws by Charles des Montesquieu